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Top 7 Languages used in Backend Development

There are two important niches in web development: frontend and backend development. Front end development is mostly concerned with the UI part of coding in which web servers communicate with users, while backend development is concerned with code that occurs on the server side. The front end is visible to the audience, while the backend is not. As a result, it is also in charge of how it operates within.

Backend code interacts with the frontend by sending and receiving messages that must be understood and presented on the web page. What languages are used in backend development? PHP, Node.js, Ruby, Java, C#, Python, and Kotlin are some of the backend languages used to develop dynamic websites. 

Furthermore, you must consider the demand and popularity of a particular programming language in the tech world, especially if you intend to learn a programming language for career purposes, as there is no point in learning a programming language that has become obsolete or is no longer in demand in the market.

Here is a list of top programming languages that are used in the backend development and will not become obsolete very soon.


1. PHP


An open-source server-side scripting language is "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor", which originally stood for "Personal Home Page". It is often utilized in large corporations such as WordPress and Facebook. PHP can only be understood by servers that have PHP installed. Its filename is followed by the suffix ".php". In comparison to other languages, PHP is seen to be a stable language.

PHP includes the following distinguishing features:

  • It is compatible with databases such as Oracle, MySQL, Sybase, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and Informix.
  • It contains comprehensive libraries for utilizing different modules and representing data.
  • It is an interpreted language that is platform-independent.
  • In PHP, all keywords, methods, classes, and user-defined functions are case-insensitive, except when a variable is declared.
  • Generates dynamic content.


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2. JavaScript


Whenever there is a conversation about web development, the term JavaScript is almost always mentioned.

JavaScript is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages in the IT industry. One of the primary reasons for this is that the language can be used for both front end and back end web development.

For backend development, programmers use a kind of JavaScript known as Node.js. The Node.js framework, among other things, enables a developer to manage data updates from the front end and create scalable network applications capable of handling numerous concurrent user requests.


3. Ruby


Yukihiro Matsumoto created the Ruby programming language in the mid-1990s. It is an object-oriented, dynamic, and reflective language that is open source. It is platform-independent, like Java, and hence may run on Windows, Mac, and all Unix versions. Ruby adheres to the POLA (Principle Of Least Astonishment) principle, which indicates that the language lowers confusion for experienced users.

Some of the features of Ruby are:

  • Object-oriented: This implies that everything in Ruby is represented as an object. Every object will be assigned a class, and each class will have a superclass. All of the rules specified for objects apply to Ruby as a whole.
  • Flexibility: In Ruby, we can quickly add, delete, and alter elements. Existing components may be changed, and there are no such limitations.
  • Dynamic typing: Ruby programs are not compiled as such. A variable may contain any sort of object. When a method is called, Ruby searches it up, regardless of the object type.
  • Mixin: One of Ruby's distinguishing characteristics is that it has just one inheritance. It mostly functions on modules with a small number of instances. Alternatively, a module and a class may be combined.


4. Java


Another excellent programming language for backend web development is Java. The object-oriented programming language is extensively used for constructing enterprise-scale web applications, as well as android apps, desktop apps, scientific apps, and so on. 

The fundamental benefit of utilizing Java is that it operates on the Write Once, Run Anywhere concept, which means that compiled Java code may be run on any platform that supports Java without recompilation. To be more explicit, the Java code is first compiled into machine-independent byte code, which then executes on the JVM independently of the underlying architecture. 

Furthermore, Java provides multithreading, which allows for the concurrent execution of two or more threads for optimal CPU use. Other benefits of Java include platform independence, adherence to OOP ideas, a large number of open-source libraries, automated memory allocation and garbage collection, portability, and so on.


5. C#


C# is one of the only languages that has consistently ranked in the top five programming languages in a variety of standard indices over the past several years. However, you should be aware that Microsoft created this general-purpose language particularly for the .Net framework. 

Aside from backend web development, C# is now widely utilized in a variety of sectors such as the production of Windows apps, game development, and so forth. 

The language has several useful characteristics, including quicker compilation, interoperability, scalability and updateability, component-oriented & structured language, and many more. Furthermore, C# provides a broad collection of libraries that aid developers in a speedier and more efficient development process. 

As a result, if you're looking for a programming language for a backend web developer, you may attempt C# as well.


6. Python


Python is an interpreted high-level programming language. It is one of the most widely used programming languages, and it adheres to a variety of programming paradigms, including OOP, structured, and functional programming.

Some of Python’s features include:

  • Python is a high-level programming language that is easier to learn and code in than other languages such as C++, C#, or Java. If you have a rudimentary grasp of programming, you can master its syntax and begin coding in a few of hours.
  • Object-Oriented Language — Python supports the object-oriented programming paradigm. It implies that you may create classes and objects in order to write organized code for your software or apps. It aids in the knowledge of the code as well as the cleanliness of the code. Using OOP ideas, coders may quickly reuse classes and functionality. This approach also minimizes the number of lines of code.
  • Platform Independent Language (Python) — Python is a portable and platform-agnostic programming language. The same Python code may be executed on Windows, Linux, Unix, and other platforms.
  • Python Libraries – Python comes with a plethora of libraries that provide a variety of features. When you locate built-in libraries for the same functionality, you won't have to build code from scratch. OpenCV, for example, is a Python package for computer vision, while Selenium is extensively used for web automation and scraping.


7. Kotlin


Kotlin is a well-known programming language, particularly for developing Android applications. Kotlin is a language that can communicate with Java. It denotes that you may use this programming language inside Java programs that have previously been established.

Java is the most popular programming language for Android apps. If you've learnt Kotlin and have a project that's half-built in Java, you can utilize Kotlin inside Java to increase the application's functionality.

Kotlin enables developers to create extensions to classes without having to edit the original code. Programmers may simply add their own functionality to the classes, allowing them to develop an app quickly and efficiently.




This article provides an overview of the leading server-side programming languages, as well as their fundamental features. When it comes to the best language for your project, this article does give the top possibilities, but it all relies on your project's needs.

Hopefully, you will choose the most appropriate and suitable backend programming language for your project.


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